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Cuadernos de Historia Moderna Nº 30
 

Nombre de la Revista: Cuadernos de Historia Moderna
Número de Sumario: 30
Fecha de Publicación: 2005
Páginas:
Sumario:

La Diplomacia Portuguesa durante el Antiguo Régimen. Perfil sociológico y trayectorias   

 
GONÇALO MONTEIRO, Nuno | CARDIM, Pedro


Palabras Clave: Diplomacia, diplomáticos, elites, embajadores, nobleza, relaciones internacionales, gobierno, remuneración de servicios, prosopografía
 
Diplomacy, diplomats, elites, ambassadors, nobility, international relations, government, remuneration for services, prosopography

 
Resumen: Este artículo tiene como finalidad caracterizar –desde una aproximación comparativa– el perfil sociológico de la diplomacia portuguesa durante el Antiguo Régimen. A partir de una base de datos prosopográfica centrada en los doscientos treinta y siete individuos que dirigieron las misiones diplomáticas de la Corona portuguesa entre 1640 y 1834, son caracterizados los criterios (sociales e institucionales) de selección de estos servidores reales, así como sus trayectorias anteriores y posteriores en el servicio diplomático. El conjunto de datos analizados muestra que, a semejanza de lo que sucedía en otros ámbitos de la administración regia, la... aristocracia también desempeñaba un papel importante en el campo diplomático. Además, la información recogida revela un dato algo sorprendente: la inexistencia de vías hegemónicas de acceso a la diplomacia –se podía llegar sirviendo en cualquiera de los campos de la administración (ejército, magistratura, burocracia, iglesia)–, detectándose, incluso, muchos embajadores sin ningún servicio anterior en una institución central. Esta situación de relativa indefinición del reclutamiento distingue, sin duda, a la diplomacia de las demás instituciones de la Corona, señalando un carácter marcadamente político de una parte significativa del personal diplomático. Por último, la información analizada demuestra, igualmente, que el servicio diplomático representó la antecámara de varias carreras en la alta política, en especial en el siglo XVIII –de sus filas saldrían la mayor parte de los secretarios de estado–. 
 
This article uses a comparative approach to describe the sociological outline of Portuguese diplomacy during the Old Regime. Based on a prosopographic database of the two hundred and thinty seven individuals who headed up the diplomatic missions of the Lusitanian Crown between 1640 and 1834, the article describes the (social and institutional) criteria for selection of those royal servants, and their trajectories before and after their diplomatic service. The database material studied shows that, as in other sectors of the royal administration, the aristocracy also played an important role in the diplomatic sphere. However, the data collected...  also reveals a somewhat surprising fact: that there were no hegemonic ways of accessing the diplomatic career – it was possible to reach this sector by having served in any of the branches of the administration (the army, the judiciary, the bureaucracy, the church), and we even found many diplomats who had not done prior service in any central institution. This situation of a relative lack of definition in recruitment does not applied to other Crown institutions and points to the markedly political nature of a significant number of diplomatic staff. Finally, the information analysed also shows that the diplomatic service was the anteroom to several prominent careers in politics, especially in the eighteenth century – the majority of the secretaries of state of the King’s government came out of the diplomatic ranks. This article uses a comparative approach to describe the sociological outline of Portuguese diplomacy during the Old Regime. Based on a prosopographic database of the two hundred and thinty seven individuals who headed up the diplomatic missions of the Lusitanian Crown between 1640 and 1834, the article describes the (social and institutional) criteria for selection of those royal servants, and their trajectories before and after their diplomatic service. The database material studied shows that, as in other sectors of the royal administration, the aristocracy also played an important role in the diplomatic sphere. However, the data collected also reveals a somewhat surprising fact: that there were no hegemonic ways of accessing the diplomatic career – it was possible to reach this sector by having served in any of the branches of the administration (the army, the judiciary, the bureaucracy, the church), and we even found many diplomats who had not done prior service in any central institution. This situation of a relative lack of definition in recruitment does not applied to other Crown institutions and points to the markedly political nature of a significant number of diplomatic staff. Finally, the information analysed also shows that the diplomatic service was the anteroom to several prominent careers in politics, especially in the eighteenth century – the majority of the secretaries of state of the King’s government came out of the diplomatic ranks. This article uses a comparative approach to describe the sociological outline of Portuguese diplomacy during the Old Regime. Based on a prosopographic database of the two hundred and thinty seven individuals who headed up the diplomatic missions of the Lusitanian Crown between 1640 and 1834, the article describes the (social and institutional) criteria for selection of those royal servants, and their trajectories before and after their diplomatic service. The database material studied shows that, as in other sectors of the royal administration, the aristocracy also played an important role in the diplomatic sphere. However, the data collected also reveals a somewhat surprising fact: that there were no hegemonic ways of accessing the diplomatic career – it was possible to reach this sector by having served in any of the branches of the administration (the army, the judiciary, the bureaucracy, the church), and we even found many diplomats who had not done prior service in any central institution. This situation of a relative lack of definition in recruitment does not applied to other Crown institutions and points to the markedly political nature of a significant number of diplomatic staff. Finally, the information analysed also shows that the diplomatic service was the anteroom to several prominent careers in politics, especially in the eighteenth century – the majority of the secretaries of state of the King’s government came out of the diplomatic ranks. This article uses a comparative approach to describe the sociological outline of Portuguese diplomacy during the Old Regime. Based on a prosopographic database of the two hundred and thinty seven individuals who headed up the diplomatic missions of the Lusitanian Crown between 1640 and 1834, the article describes the (social and institutional) criteria for selection of those royal servants, and their trajectories before and after their diplomatic service. The database material studied shows that, as in other sectors of the royal administration, the aristocracy also played an important role in the diplomatic sphere. However, the data collected also reveals a somewhat surprising fact: that there were no hegemonic ways of accessing the diplomatic career – it was possible to reach this sector by having served in any of the branches of the administration (the army, the judiciary, the bureaucracy, the church), and we even found many diplomats who had not done prior service in any central institution. This situation of a relative lack of definition in recruitment does not applied to other Crown institutions and points to the markedly political nature of a significant number of diplomatic staff. Finally, the information analysed also shows that the diplomatic service was the anteroom to several prominent careers in politics, especially in the eighteenth century – the majority of the secretaries of state of the King’s government came out of the diplomatic ranks. vv
 

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El silencio de los inocentes. Ecos inquisitoriales en Madrid y su tierra durante el epígono Trastamara. Una aproximación prosopográfica  

 
GÓMEZ VOZMEDIANO, Miguel F.
41 
Palabras Clave: Madrid, Inquisición, Conversos, Reyes Católicos, Carlos V.
 
Madrid, Inquisition, Converso history, Catholics Kings, Charles V.

 
Resumen: Los judíos y conversos en tierras de Madrid han sido unas minorías olvidadas por la historia. A través de la documentación señorial, inquisitorial, eclesiástica, el presente artículo descubre la realidad cotidiana de unos colectivos humanos marginados por el poder, pero cuya vitalidad desborda la represión a la que son sometidos. En particular, investigamos a aquellos madrileños procesados por el Santo Oficio en el Renacimiento, acusados de criptojudaismo, y que escaparon a la tela de araña tejida por la intolerancia de la época. 
 
Jewishs and converts in the area of Madrid have been a minority forgotten by the history. Through nobility, inquisitorial and ecclesiastical documents, the article discovers the daily reality of the communities excluded by the power, but their vitality is beyond the repression they suffer. In particular, we research people of Madrid that Inquisition has prosecuted during the Renaissance, acussed of criptojews who and scape from the cobweb spins by the intolerance of this age.
 

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“Por la autoridad de los ministros”: observaciones sobre los letrados en una alegación de Juan Bautista Larrea (primera mitad del siglo XVII)  

 
VOLPINI, Paola

63 
Palabras Clave: Alegato, magistrados, Autoridad, Ministros, sistema administración de justicia.
 
Allegatio, jurists, auctority, letrados, justice administration system.
 
Resumen: En este artículo se analizan algunos aspectos de la dinámica política de la Monarquía española durante los años Treinta del siglo XVII, así como quedan reflejados en la actividad y en los escritos de Juan Bautista Larrea (1589-1645), jurista, magistrado y luego consejero durante el valimiento del Conde Duque de Olivares. La experiencia de Larrea refleja la función de los letrados en esta fase, así como el recorrido que muchos de ellos realizaron y los lazos de interés y estrecha colaboración que tuvieron con el Olivares, el cual caracterizó su gobierno con una política a un mismo tiempo reformadora y autoritaria. Se reflexionará sobre la forma de proceder de muchos personajes dotados de relevantes poderes, pero situados por debajo de la cumbre del poder político. Durante la primera parte del reinado de Felipe IV, el camino de estos personajes solió caracterizarse tanto con una alta adhesión a los objectivos reformadores como con una considerable tensión hacia el cambio; en un momento posterior, en cambio, tras varios fracasos, fue caracterizado por el progresivo alejamiento de éstos de las perspectivas reformadoras. La relación entre la práctica política de los letrados y la administración de la justicia se ha estudiado a través del análisis de una allegatio de Larrea. Este texto se debe a un episodio del cual fue víctima un magistrado que, calumniado, estuvo a punto de perder la vida y la honra, antes de que se le retiraran los cargos. Del texto existen dos versiones: una circuló en castellano, titulada Por la autoridad de los ministros a Su Magestad; otra está en latín y se encuentra incluida dentro de las Allegationes Fiscales, una de las importantes recopilaciones de textos jurídicos del Larrea (Lugduni, 1642 e 1645, 2 vols.). A partir de la defensa del juez calumniado, Larrea reflexiona sobre la función de los letrados en el sistema político, fundando su opinión sobre la tratadística política y jurídica de la época. La lectura detallada del texto, en la cual se ha incluido el análisis de sus referencias a los tratados políticos y jurídicos, presenta una relación viva y dinámica entre el poder real y sus letrados, compuesta de colaboración y enfrentamientos, de intercambios y pretensiones. Según Larrea, esta relación debería fundarse sobre la confianza mutua y sobre el reconocimiento público por parte del rey del papel político, económico y social de los letrados. De no ser así, según su visión todo el sistema administrativo- judicial podria collapsar. 
 
In this work we examine some aspects of the political dinamic of the Spanish kingdom during the Tirites of the XVII century, as they are reflected in the activity and in the texts of Juan Bautista Larrea (1589-1645), jurist, judge and later counsellor during the valimiento of the Count-Duke of Olivares. The experience of Larrea reflects the function of letrados (spanish lawmen and judges) in this phase, the path that many of them followed and the ties of interest and colaboration that they kept with Olivares, who caracterized his government by reformer and, at the same time, authoritarian policy. We will reflect on the way in which acted persons which, although had kept relevant power in the government and in the justice administration system, didn’t reach up to the top. During the first part of the reign of Philip IV, the activity of these letrados was characterized, in a first phase, by an high adhesion to the objectivies of reform an by an important pression to introduce changes. Later, otherwise, due to a lot of unsuccesses, it was characterized by a progressive neglect of the perspectives of reform. The relationship between the political activity of the letrados and the justice administration has been studied analysing an allegatio of Juan Bautista Larrea. This text was due to a case in which a judge was calumniated and arrived close to loose his professional position and even his life, before that he could demostrate to be innocent. Two versions of this text are avialables. One, in spanish, is entitled Por la autoridad de los ministros a Su Magestad; the other, in latin, is inserted as a part of Allegationes Fiscales, one of the most important juridical works of Larrea (Lugduni, 1642-1645, 2 vols.). Starting from the defense of the calumniated man, Larrea reflects about the function of letrados in the political system, basing his opinion on political and juridical tractises. The deep analysis of the text, in which the analysis of his references to the political and juridical tractises has been included, shows a vital and dynamic relationship between the king and his letrados, made of colaboration and disputes, of claims and exchanges. Larrea thought that this relationship should be based on reciprocal trusts and on the King’s public acceptance of the political, economic and social rule of the letrados. If not, the complete monarchical system could collapse.
 

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Las Juntas Generales de Bizkaia a principios de la Edad Moderna: desequilibrios y enfrentamientos anteriores a la concordia  

 
ZABALA MONTOYA, Mikel
85 
Palabras Clave: Historia institucional. Desórdenes. Bizkaia. Siglos XVI-XVII.
 
History of institutions. Disorder. Biscay. 16th. and 17th. Centuries.

 
Resumen: Las principales instituciones de Bizkaia se fueron configurando en los primeros tiempos de la Edad Moderna. La Concordia de 1630 ha sido considerada como un punto de inflexión en el devenir de la historia institucional moderna de Bizkaia. Sin embargo, el acuerdo vino precedido de una fuerte conflictividad en el seno de esas instituciones. Algunos de los enfrentamientos más llamativos tuvieron lugar en las Juntas Generales (asambleas de representantes locales) y se dirigieron contra los Corregidores. Además, las adhesiones a uno u otro bando –aparentemente superadas, pero que terminaron por integrarse en el orden institucional– jugaron con frecuencia...  un papel considerable 
 
The main institutions in Biscay developed in the Early Modern Age. The Concord of 1630 has been regarded as the high point in the history of modern institutions in Biscay. However, there was a hard struggle in these institutions before this agreement. Sometimes noticeable confrontation took place in General Assemblies, where local representatives met, and protests were directed against the Chief Magistrates. Besides, alliances with two main clans –which seemed to be out of date, but they finally took part in the modern institutional order– had often an important role in these happenings.
 

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Un escenario italiano para los gobernantes españoles. El nuevo palacio de los virreyes de Nápoles (1599-1653)  

PALOS PEÑARROYA, Joan Luís
125 
Palabras Clave: Nápoles. Arte. Poder. Virreyes. Siglo XVII.
 
Naples. Art. Power. Viceroy. XVII’s century
 
Resumen: Las nuevas exigencias de la representación del poder y la expectativa de un viaje del rey Felipe III a Nápoles, llevaron al virrey, conde de Lemos, a emprender en 1600 la construcción de un nuevo palacio. El edificio realizado por Domenico Fontana, el artífice de la nueva Roma de Sixto V, fue el resultado de una alianza entre las posibilidades comunicadoras del lenguaje visual de artistas italianos y las necesidades políticas de la monarquía hispánica. Los frescos que decoraban algunas de las principales salas del edificio, constituían una lectura de la construcción del imperio y una justificación de su presencia en Italia. 
 
In light of the need to visually represent power and in anticipation of King Philip III’s visit to Naples, the Viceroy Count de Lemos decided, in 1600, to construct a new palace. The building, designed and constructed by Domenico Fontana who also created the new Rome of Sixto V, was the result of an alliance between the communicative possibilities of Italian artistic visual vocabulary and the political necessities of the Spanish Monarchy. The frescoes, which decorated some of the main halls, depicted the construction of the Empire and a justification of its presence in Italy.
 

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Algunos instrumentos para estudiar lo cervantino1   

  
ALVAR EZQUERRA, Alfredo
185 
Palabras Clave: Cervantes, vida y obra. Interpretaciones históricas.
 
 Cervantes, life and works. Historical interpretations.

 
Resumen: En este trabajo se repasan los instrumentos básicos que debe conocer un estudiante de Edad Moderna cuando se enfrenta con las múltiples realidades cervantinas. En primer lugar, se hace una incursión en las propias alusiones que hace Cervantes a su obra y, en segundo lugar, se citan los grandes hitos que ha habido en la historia de los estudios de nuestro autor. 
 
Any early modern student should be aware of certain basic research methods when looking at issues that Cervantes dealt with. This paper aims to review them comprehensively. Firstly I touch on Cervantes’s reviews of his own works. Secondly, I explain the main landmarks over the history of our author’s studies.
 

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JOSEPH PÉREZ, DOCTOR “HONORIS CAUSA”POR LA UNIVERSIDAD DE VALLADOLID   

 

197 

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reseñas  

 

213 

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tesis doctorales   

227 



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